Vocabulary

Analyte

A substance that is undergoing analysis or is being measured. Read more »

Apoptosis

The process of programmed cell death. Read more »

Cancer Screening

Tests or procedures that are used to detect cancer before symptoms appear. The IvyGene test is not an approved cancer screening test.

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA)

DNA that is released into the circulation from either normal cells or cancer cells, often due to cell death. Read more »

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)

DNA that is released into the circulation from cancer cells, often due to cell death. Circulating tumor DNA is one type of cell-free DNA. Read more »

CpG

A site in genomic DNA when the base cytosine (C) is immediately adjacent to the base guanine (G) and these two bases are covalently linked by a phosphodiester bond (CpG)

DNA

DNA is the molecule that is the hereditary material in all living cells.

Epigenetic Marker

Reversible modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, that Read more »

Gene Expression

The generation of a functional gene product from the information encoded by a gene, through the processes of transcription and translation. Gene products are often proteins, however non-protein coding genes can encode functional RNA, including ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA).” Read more »

Genome

A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. In humans, a copy of the entire genome—more than 3 billion DNA base pairs—is contained in all cells that have a nucleus.

Histone Modification

Genomic DNA is wound around protein complexes called histones. These protein complexes can be post-translationally modified (i.e. methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, etc.). These histone modifications often act as epigenetic markers of gene expression.

Laboratory Developed Test (LDT)

A type of in vitro diagnostic test that is designed, manufactured and used within a single laboratory.

Methyl Group

A chemical group that contains one carbon atom surrounded by three hydrogen atoms

Necrosis

Premature cell death caused by external factors such as infection, damage to the cell membrane or significant changes to normal physiological conditions

Quantification

To measure the amount or concentration of an analyte

Sensitivity

The sensitivity of a test is its ability to determine the patient cases correctly.
Calculates as: Sensitivity = True Positive / (True Positive + False Negative) Read more »

Serum

A blood specimen after the cells and clotting factors have been removed. To generate a blood serum sample, whole blood is often collected and allowed to clot. The blood cells and precipitated clotting factors are then separated from the liquid fraction by centrifugation.

Specificity

The specificity of a test is its ability to determine the healthy cases correctly.

Calculated as: Specificity = True Negative / (True Negative + False Positive) Read more »

Staging

A standardized system to describe the extent to which cancer has progressed. For more information on the metrics of how cancers are staged, please refer to the National Cancer Institute or the American Cancer Society websites. Read more about cancer » or Read more about the treatment »

Tissue of Origin

The cell type or tissue from which a cancer is derived.

Whole Blood

A blood specimen that has been collected from a subject. Whole blood contains all of the components of blood, including: cells, clotting factors and proteins.

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