Cancers Detected with IvyGene™
The Four Cancers the IvyGene™ Blood Test Detects
Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. Most of these cancers begin in the milk ducts, but they can start to grow in different parts of the breast. These rapidly growing cells will usually form a tumor that can be felt in the breast or seen on an x-ray. The breasts can be prone to developing lumps, but most are benign. They are malignant if the cells begin invading surrounding tissues or metastasize to other areas of the body.
Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in American women. For a woman in the U.S., the risk of developing breast cancer in her lifetime is about 1 in 8. Over 40,000 women die from breast cancer every year.
Colorectal cancer starts in the colon, a muscular 5-foot tube that makes up most of the large intestine. Most colon cancers start as a growth on the inner lining of the colon, called a polyp. Not all polyps will become cancer, but they can. There are two main types of polyps: adenomatous polyps (ademonas) and hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps. Ademonas are more likely to change into cancer, particularly if it is larger than 1 cm or if more than two polyps are found. As a colon cancer grows outward through the layers of the colon, it can grow into a blood vessel or lymph vessel and metastasize.
Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. Risk factors increase or decrease the odds, but on average about 1 in 20 people develop colon cancer. The vast majority of these cases (90+%) are in people 50 years old and above. There is a hereditary component, as people whose parents or siblings have colon cancer have two to three times the risk of developing it.
The liver is the human body’s largest internal organ and can be found under the right side ribs beneath the right lung. Cancer that starts in the liver is called primary liver cancer. The liver consists of mostly cells called hepatocytes. It also has other types of cells, including cells that line its blood vessels and cells that line small tubes in the liver called bile ducts. These different types of liver cells can form several types of cancerous tumors. These different cancers have different causes and are treated in different manners. The prognosis for the different types varies, as well. The most common form of liver cancer in adults is known as hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatocellular cancer. Some hepatocellular cancers begin as a single tumor. A second type starts as many small cancer nodules throughout the liver, and is often found in people with cirrhosis of the liver.
Liver cancer incidence has more than tripled since 1980. About 42,000 new cases are diagnosed yearly, with about 30,000 deaths from liver cancer every year.
There are three main types of lung cancer. “Non-small” lung cancer is the most common type, making up about 85 percent of all lung cancers. “Small cell” lung cancer is also known as “oat cell cancer.” Small cell lung cancer tends to spread quickly. It accounts for 10-15 percent of lung cancers. The third type is “lung carcinoid tumor,” where tumors usually grow slowly and rarely spread. Lung carcinoid cancer makes up fewer than 5 percent of lung cancers. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer by far, linked to 80 to 90 percent of all lung cancers. Exposure to radon, secondhand smoke, asbestos, and diesel exhaust are also shown to increase risk.
More people in the U.S. die from lung cancer than any other type of cancer. This is true for both men and women. Every year about 200,000 Americans are diagnosed with lung cancer, and about 150,000 die from it.